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Titanium - March 27, 2018 by Jackie

Hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride with water vapor at 25-75 C in air leads to the formation of a viscous liquid, solidifying the Slow the white mass. Vapor phase hydrolysis at 1000-1200 C produces titanium dioxide pigment properties, so it can be use, subject to finding an effective method of recycling the hydrogen chloride. Burning of titanium tetrachloride with oxygen flows through the reaction: TiCl4 + O2 = TiO2 + 2S12. Liberated chlorine can be returned to production for titanium tetrachloride, so the method of burning is used in industrial production. The most important operation in the production of pigmentary titanium dioxide is the burning of chlorine by titanium tetrachloride. It is at 900-1000 C in the burners of special design to ensure the maintenance of the reaction temperature within the specified limits and exposure to combustion products within a certain time. To obtain a monodisperse product titanium dioxide stay in the zone of high temperatures should not exceed 0.01-5 sec.

Depending on the combustion of titanium tetrachloride titanium dioxide has a structure of rutile or anatase. Mixing the initial reagents at 400 C leads to the formation of anatase with a particle size of 0.5-1.0 microns. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out CEO Ford Motor Co.. Pre-heating them to 1000 C combustion yields a product containing 60% rutile. Burning of titanium tetrachloride with a mixture of silicon tetrachloride (0.5-4.0%) leads to decrease in the size of the particles of titanium dioxide. Silicon tetrachloride also helps to reduce the so-called photoactivity of titanium dioxide. The addition to the products of combustion and even aluminum chloride (1-5%) accelerates the transition of anatase in rutile. Proportion of rutile in the finished product depends on the concentration of embryonic crystals, resulting in the first stage of the reaction.

Titanium pigments are obtained by burning titanium tetrachloride, containing up to 0.6% of the adsorbed chlorine. Aqueous suspension of the product has a pH> 7, and it is not suitable for making paints. Desorption of chlorine from the pigment can be accomplished by calcining it at 300-900 C, the admixture of chlorine at the same time reduced to 0.1%. This product has a pH of the water Hood 5-6,8 and suitable for the manufacture of paints and enamels, but it needs to surface treatment of silicon and aluminum compounds. Getting out of titanium dioxide concentrate sfenovogo recently developed and tested a number of new versions of technology that provides the pigment product of sphene. The most compact solution for the production of titanium dioxide is shown in Fig. 3.4. In this embodiment, the solid phase is separated from the suspension liquid until the moment of deposition of titanium salt it. At the same time remain in the sediment of calcium sulfate, silica (SiO2) and undecomposed minerals, and the liquid phase is a titanium solution suitable for direct separation of titanium salt – TiOSO4 H2O. When termogidrolize STM solution obtained pigment titanium dioxide, rutile modification of the higher grades. Processing of titanium salt TiOSO4 H2O can be arranged in place of its reception. Titanium salt can be transported for processing and in other areas. The mother liquor after separation of the salt is fully refundable on sulphatization, resulting in significantly less sulfuric acid (up to 3.5-4.5 m per 1 ton of titanium dioxide). C the current situation and outlook for the Russian market of titanium dioxide can be found in the report of the Academy of IKAR industrial markets "Market of titanium dioxide in Russia."

Snack Export - November 24, 2013 by Jackie

As additional services, in addition to distribution, when it comes to doptovarah, Snack exports to its partners provide consulting services to promote, on the Ukrainian market analysts, together determine the marketing activities optimizes the cost of promotion, selecting only those activities that are most effective. In 2007, as distributors, in addition to our snack brands, Snack Export plans to operate no less than five different product groups: we see as opportunities for collaboration market tea, confectionery market, and several other categories of goods FMCG, which is currently too early to tell. These are our plans, but Basically, we are ready to consider proposals for cooperation with any manufacturer (whose product meets our criteria), which is ready for a serious seizure of the Ukrainian market. As a manufacturer of snack Export on the market long enough (very “old” to our brand, “Kozatska rozvage” – for 7 years!). As a distributor, we started to work only in Dnepropetrovsk in 2003. But during that time the company Snack Export was opened on 28 branches and podfilialov throughout Ukraine, and without false modesty, we can say that we have one of the largest distribution networks in Ukraine. The uniqueness of this network, as already mentioned, is that Snack Export operates in several other countries where the same quality standards in the distribution that we observed. Ways of distribution in Ukraine now that the manufacturing company has opened its own distribution, then Naturally, the question becomes more urgent – how to make it maximally profitable direction. Here only one way – distribution will work actively to profit only when the director of the company will actively engage foreign brands, the company will provide logistics services on the side. And if one is a proper distribution was considered a support function of sales, then this phase distribution is becoming full-fledged business area. Ukrainian distributor is to build high-quality logistics, which is not yet available. Logistics – a concept quite capacious, here can be attributed not only transport available to the distributor, here also includes the service and software, and routing and timing, and even how and what to wear drivers. Such logistics – a very cumbersome and complex set, which would require a fairly high staff qualification level (as an option – trained in the work of Western-style companies), which, so far, still very lacking. Ukrainian logistics service call yet. It is still far from optimization of the cost of gasoline, transportation, personnel. Ideal logistics companies in our market will, I think 5-10 years. As for coverage, the Ukraine has no logistics companies, which would cover the whole territory and would have branch in each region. It is really difficult, except that a few operators in the market distribution services to consolidate their logistics structure and create a corporation. Today the trend is that distribution companies, not to go to the dogs, just have to grow into logistics companies (provide logistics services exclusively – storage, transport, etc.). In principle, after a while leaving in pure logistics – the fate of all distribution companies. Since logistics is built on the west, so will we. The second option for further growth and development of distribution companies – to open their production and enter the a new level.

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